The Great Pyramid, Part 7

“In the center (beneath the pyramid structure), the rock core is left standing but is terraced, so a
rock outcropping with steps is left in the middle (
depicted by the red line in the above illustration).
This is important, because the rock core has a
different coefficient of shrinkage than the stone
blocks that are used for the pyramid body. If you don't consider this fact, the structure will develop
displacements and fissures. To avoid this you have to interlock the building stones with the bedrock, to
accomplish this “
headers” are used, which are long stones reaching into the rock and tying them
together.” (
“Building the Great Pyramid”)

“Once the sand, gravel and loose rocks had been removed, down to the solid bedrock of the plateau,
the whole pyramid site was
open-cast quarried into blocks, leaving a square core for the center of
the pyramid (
the core is approximately 412.7 ft square, and rises approx. 46.25 feet high. This of
course is speculation as there is no way to actually determine the true height and size of the core
structure nor the exact number of terrace levels as this central rock core is completely buried
beneath the pyramid itself, at best this could only be estimated
). This core gives the pyramid stability
from the downward and horizontal forces that will develop from the superimposed loads of blocks of
stones that are piled up, as the pyramid rises. Also, from the prevailing north-west winds that exert
enormous pressures on the huge areas of the pyramid’s faces, thus increasing these forces further.

The blocks which were quarried were then stored outside
a low wall; made of mortared stone that
surrounds the core (
the outside dimensions of the wall are approx. 887.3 feet square). Today there
still remains the foundation of this wall on the north, south and west sides of the pyramid, at an
average distance of 65 feet from the outer edge of the base casing stone.”

Several different methods have been suggested as to how precisely the pyramid site was

One such method which has been suggested is that it was “accomplished by flooding the entire area
the wall (referred to above) with water, leaving just the high spots. These then were cut down
to the level of the surface of the water. Next, some of the water was released and the high spots again
were cut down to the water’s surface. This process was repeated until the entire pyramid site, between
the core and the four walls, was leveled down to the base of the pyramid’s platform”. (
Back in Time
3104 B.C. to the Great Pyramid: Egyptians Broke Their Backs to Build It: How the Great
Pyramid Was Really Built by Socrates G. Taseos

Another suggests that “once the proper site was chosen and the surface sand removed a grid of
interconnecting channels was cut into the bedrock. These trenches were then flooded with water. They
were able to make level marks on the rock walls. The walls could then be cut to the same height,
making the top surface level. The trenches were then filled with rubble”.

The difficulty with these first two theories is the fact that the plateau upon which the pyramid resides
sits about 130 feet above the Nile valley thus it would prove quite a feat indeed to pump that much
water up to this height especially so if the first method suggested were utilized this would require
pumping enough up the incline to flood 13 acres and at a height sufficient to cover the central rock
core which it is presumptuously stated to be about 46 feet above the plateau, that’s quite a large
above ground swimming pool, a monumental task in itself

A somewhat more reasonable approach however which has been suggested would be that “the builders
installed posts (
batter boards) at regular intervals. A line, leveled with plumb bobs, was then pulled
taut across the posts at a reference mark to ensure alignment, and then they could excavate the
foundation down to the reference marks”.

“The only instrument for leveling known to the ancient Egyptians was the
square level. This is a right-
angled isosceles triangle made from wood. This tool is made in the shape of the letter "
A" and looks
like a triangle ruler or a builder's square. A plumb-line is suspended from the top of the connected
corners. If the plumb bob coincides with a mark in the middle of the crossbeam, the surface area on
which the two legs stand is level. By placing this triangle on stone, these could be easily leveled”.

Isosceles triangle made from wood with plumb-line and plumb bob, which points to the mark on the
cross beam.

“For establishing equal levels over large distances, this triangle was laid on top of a beam. First the
triangle was checked and adjusted, so it would lie horizontally and level on the beam. Then, by fixing
upon a leveling staff in the distance, differences in height could be noticed and corrected. Field tests
showed that up to a distance of 45m a difference of 1 centimeter could be detected. Because of the
limited eye sight of humans larger distances could not be covered. But because it is possible to sight
on both sides from this kind of measuring station, it probably was possible to correctly level distances
of up to 90 meters”.

“The base area and the outer
fundament are leveled, and then the pyramid corners and the edges are
measured. For the corner stone’s a special bed (
or socket) is cut, so they can support and absorb the
enormous weight of the pyramid that presses down and sideward’s. (
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the
only pyramid known to possess these
socket-foundations). The fundament (or foundation) is laid
down with a slight gradient of 2-3° inwards, any Crevices or cracks on the plateau are filled and if
necessary blocked up with large stones, so the basalt pavement could later be laid on a level surface.”
“Building the Great Pyramid”)

Here we have an illustration of one of the crevices or fissures found on the plateau. “According to the
account of Col. Howard Vyse, this fissure, the hole in the ground to the left was discovered in 1837 A.
D. and had originally been filled with ruble stone-work, and covered over with large inset stones, one of
which may be seen in the photograph, partly fallen in. Over these inset stones which were flush with
the leveled rock, the beautifully fitted pavement had been laid.”
It was believed at the time that this
fissure might be connected to some sort of subterranean chamber under the Pyramid at one time
alluded to by the Greek historian Herodotus, however after a thorough investigation no passage was
found and it was determined that there was no subterranean passage in connection with the Great
Pyramid save that of the well-known Descending Passage leading to the Pit, a hundred feet below the
base of the Pyramid
. (Great Pyramid Passages, Vol. 1 Page 136)

Continued with next post.

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