Creation, Part 6


















In our previous post we had hinted at a cataclysmic event which was shortly to take place which we
believe would rectify (that is for the time being) the runaway greenhouse effect that was overtaking our
newly forming world. Now as stated before some have suggested that the early primordial atmosphere
could not have been as thick as we have suggested due to its close proximity to the sun and its solar
winds, note the following remarks as taken from “
Early Earth’s Magnetic Field Was a Weakling” by
Andrea Thompson,
https://www.space.com/8006-early-earth-magnetic-field-weakling.html

“A recent study suggests that “the protective magnetic field shrouding the early Earth was likely
only half as strong as it is today
.” In truth little is known about the magnetic field as it existed just
after the Earth formed, around 4.5 billion years ago. It is the magnetic field which keeps solar particles
from eating away at the molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere.

In the past, not only was the earth’s magnetic field weaker, the sun was likely rotating more
rapidly and therefore spinning off a stronger solar wind and a magnetopause that was likely
much closer to Earth
. Today it is at a distance of about 10.7 Earth radii, but then it would likely have
been around 5 Earth radii out (Earth’s average radius is about 4,960 miles, or 6,370 km).”

“That means that the particles streaming out of the sun were much more likely to reach Earth. The
implication of that situation is that “
it’s very likely the solar wind was removing volatile molecules,
like hydrogen, from the atmosphere at a much greater rate than we’re losing them today…
the
loss of hydrogen implies a loss of water as well
.

In turn, if a lot of water was stripped away early in Earth’s history, to get the amount of water
that we have now
(not to mention the amount that completely covered the earth at the beginning of
day one of creation
), the planet must have started “with either a fairly robust inventory of
water,”
and or it was possibly being continuously replenished by further impacts from comets
and asteroids, as well as small planetesimals
.”

Mars minuscule atmosphere is one example of what happens when a planet lacks a significant
magnetic field to protect itself from the sun’s radiation. However as someone said, Observation, the
final judge of scientific truth proves some things are not always as expected. As discussed in our
previous post Venus which completely lacks a magnetic field, at least none which has been discovered
as of yet defies this assumption, and retains its atmosphere
.

AS FOR THE MOON















Pictured above is a depiction of a small planetesimal possibly Theia on approach impacting the early
earth’s atmosphere
.

According to another study, the moon came into existence after several planet-size space
bodies
(planetesimals) smashed into the nascent Earth one after the other, with the final one
actually forming our satellite,
while several impacts repeatedly blew off our planet’s
atmosphere
.



















Until now, scientists thought it was unlikely that the early Earth could lose its atmosphere because of a
giant moon-forming impact. But the new research, based on recent studies showing that
at its infancy
our planet had magma oceans and was spinning so rapidly that a day was only two or three
hours long
, argues that this may have been possible.”

Research conducted by planetary scientist Sarah Stewart, a professor at Harvard University along with
several of her fellow colleagues
argued that the moon is actually a giant merger of bits and pieces of
our own planet, partially destroyed by a catastrophic collision with a space body 4.5 billion years ago.

Back then, the Earth had a two- or three-hour day, she said, and the impact made it throw off enough
material to coalesce into what became our satellite, making it the Earth’s geochemical twin. This ultra-
rapid spin is one of the important conditions necessary to make the atmospheric loss theory work,
Stewart said. The other criterion is the presence of terrestrial magma oceans — and this hypothesis has
now got support thanks to new data obtained from volcanoes.

Volcanic Memory

Two of her colleagues, who presented their work at the 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in
March, sampled elements from volcanoes in Iceland, which have rocks that are among the oldest on
Earth and thus retain the geo-chemical signatures of the Earth’s so-called lower-most mantle, closest to
the planet’s core. They also looked at elements found in volcanoes that sample the upper mantle, such
as mid-ocean ridge basalt’s at the bottom of the Atlantic. They found that elements in the deep mantle
that retain a very ancient chemistry, from the times of the Earth’s formation, are very different from
those in the upper mantle we see today.

In particular, the presence of two noble gases,
helium and neon, is very different today from what it
used to be, Stewart said. Both these gases are very rare on today’s Earth, but they are found in the
solar system in abundance. And as “
documented” by the deep Earth, when our planet was just
forming it contained much more helium and neon as well.

“The implication is that [the lower-most mantle] hasn’t been completely overprinted by subsequent
evolution, and it’s helping us pinpoint events that had to happen to lead to the planet we see today.

So how and why did these gases disappear?

While helium is not gravitationally bound to the Earth, neon is, and it needs a powerful “kick” to escape.
“For such a dramatic change to happen you can’t do that with just open loss off the top (
as suggested
in our first study concerning the early earth’s weak magnetic field
) — instead, you need to eject the
whole atmosphere in a catastrophic type of event, a giant impact
.





























Besides atmospheric loss caused by impacts that melt all rock to create magma oceans, to get to the
present-day neon-to-helium ratio Earth would have to suffer multiple impacts. In other words,
the
Earth probably
(formed and) lost its primordial atmosphere multiple times, and the magma oceans
were melting more than once. The final impact, led to the creation of the moon, and resulted in the ratio
of the gases we have today. “
One single impact is not sufficient, there had to be at least two,
probably more, to make that work
.”

No Mixing?

The idea that stages of Earth’s growth are recorded in chemistry is relatively new. Previously,
researchers argued that during our planet’s formation (
known as accretion) with a moon-forming
impact, the proto-Earth was melted and mixed to the point that it “
forgot” its growth — all the data
was erased. “But now what we’ve learned is that data wasn’t erased, and it’s exciting because now we
have clues to the stages of growth,” Stewart said. She added that the next step would be to calculate
exactly under what impact conditions the early atmosphere actually might have been blown off.

But if the early atmosphere disappeared due to an impact, how did the Earth get its
atmosphere back and how did it finally evolve into the one we have today?

“The currently accepted idea for how the moon was formed involves the impact or accretion of a Mars-
size object with or by the proto-earth. When two objects of this size collide, large amounts of heat are
generated, of which quite a lot is retained. (The amount of heat that can arise through simple
accretionary processes, bringing small bodies together to form the proto-earth, is large: on the order
of 10,000 kelvins about 18,000 degrees Fahrenheit). This single episode could have largely melted the
outermost several thousand kilometers of the planet…In other words there was no shortage of heat in
the early earth, the planet’s inability to cool off quickly would once again result in out-gassing and in
the production of another primordial atmosphere similar to the last.”




























The Giant Impactor Theory (sometimes called The Ejected Ring Theory): proposes that a
planetesimal (or small planet) the size of Mars struck the Earth just after the formation of the solar
system, ejecting large volumes of heated material from the outer layers of both objects. A disk of
orbiting material was formed, and this matter eventually stuck together to form the Moon in orbit
around the Earth. This theory can explain why the Moon is made mostly of rock and how the rock was
excessively heated. Furthermore, we see evidence in many places in the solar system that such
collisions were common late in the formative stages of the solar system.”

Stewart says that after the last giant smashup that finally formed the moon, the Earth continued to
form, accreting planetesimals — mountain-size space rocks that stuck to it, making it bigger. “These
planetesimals delivered some of Earth’s
*volatiles,” she says, eventually bringing the atmosphere to
the state it is in today. Volatiles are elements able to escape very easily.

Ian Crawford of Birkberk College, University of London, who was not involved in the study, said that the
theory sounded plausible “because multiple impacts are expected to happen in the context we think the
solar system was put together.” “It’s true that each time you have a giant impact you expect a magma
ocean to form. And the early planets are expected to have a transient atmosphere, so it is possible that
the atmosphere would be released if the magma ocean solidified.”

*In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low
boiling points that are associated with a planet or moon’s crust or atmosphere. Examples include
nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, methane and sulfur dioxide.

(Giant Impact That Formed the Moon Blew off Earth’s Atmosphere by Katia Moskvitch, http:
//www.space.com/23031-moon-origin-impact-earth-atmosphere.html)

Returning once again to our previous question,
if the early atmosphere disappeared due to an
impact, how did the Earth get its atmosphere back and how did it finally evolve into the one
we have today?
As stated the processes which created the previous atmospheres would once again
begin anew, viz. outgassing’s, volcanic activity, impacts and etc. in fact not long after the moons
formation another (hypothesized) cataclysmic event  which was taking place millions of miles from earth
would have a direct (and beneficial) affect upon the earth.

“About 4 to 3.8 billion years ago a period of intense comet and asteroid bombardment is thought to
have peppered all the planets including the Earth. Many of the numerous craters found on the Moon and
other bodies in the Solar System record this event. One theory holds that a gravitational surge caused
by the orbital interaction of Jupiter and Saturn sent Neptune careening into the ring of comets in the
outer Solar System. The disrupted comets were sent in all directions and collided with the planets.
These water-rich objects may have provided much of the water in the Earth’s oceans. The
record of this event is all but lost on the Earth because our planet’s tectonic plate system and active
erosion ensure that the surface is constantly renewed.” (“
The Late Heavy Bombardment Ends”, http:
//www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/earth_timeline/late_heavy_bombardment)

With these continuous disruptions and impacts the heat generated by the earth would once again turn
most of the volatile elements to a gaseous state which would then begin to form a thick canopy of
clouds about the earth, only this time having acquired the added mass and cores of the various
planetesimals especially the last great impact from Theia the earth’s gravitational as well as its magnetic
field would be greatly increased the latter protecting it further from the sun’s solar winds.























During the igneous (Azoic) period those vapors coming closer to the earth, and being drawn
by gravity, were still held off the surface by great heat
, but as the earth cooled, and these
vapors were allowed to condense, the masses increased in weight and there would be falls
from the upper masses to the cooling surface. Undoubtedly at first the water was changed to
steam and returned to the atmosphere
. Deluge after deluge would follow from the enshrouding
mass, and slowly the earth’s surface became plastic, depressing under impact and accumulations here,
with resulting rises over there, and liquids flowing into the depressions. Slowly the plastic condition
firmed until the surface could support the further deluges from aerial sources, and the water would
remain to collect in the lower depressions (
Most likely as boiling caldrons).”

One after another these were precipitated upon the earth’s surface.
These deluges from descending
“rings“ would naturally reach the earth from the direction of the two
magnetic poles, where
there would be least resistance, because farthest from the equator, the center of the
centrifugal force of the earth’s motion
.

The breaking down of these “
rings,” long periods apart, furnished numerous deluges (floods), and piled
strata upon strata over the earth’s surface. The rush of waters from the poles toward the equator
would distribute variously the sand and mud and minerals,
the water strongly mineralized thus
covering the entire surface of the earth
, just as described at the beginning of the narrative of
Genesis
. (Compare Gen 1:2 and 1:9)

In our next post we will jump ahead only God knows how many millions of years to Day One of the
creation.

                                              
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