Creation, Part 4

The Time before Creation

As alluded to in our previous posts a clear distinction must be drawn between the beginning of the
earth’s creation, i.e. the creation of the physical globe or earth itself (
Verse 1), and its subsequent
ordering (
or bringing it to life) in the epoch days as narrated in the scriptures. Since the time interval
between the events in
Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2 is not stated, the Bible does not commit itself as
to the age of the earth (
nor to the heavens), even if the lengths of the epoch days were clearly stated.
Consequently,
there is no conflict between science and the Genesis account as to the actual
age of the earth itself
. Many scientists have speculated that the earth may be a little over four billion
years old (
4.5 being the generally accepted age), with this particular estimate we have no qualms.

To the true believer that which is written is enough, however in order to properly present our case
before the skeptic or non-believer I believe we need to establish some basis upon which to present our
case as some might imply that we were simply coming into the middle of the story rather than at its
true beginning.

Now one of the chief stumbling blocks which most theories encounter
when attempting to
harmonize with the scriptures
, notwithstanding the ridiculous idea held by our religious extremist
friends who believe in the seven days of creation theory composed of literal twenty-four hour periods is
the statement made in the
Verse 2 of the opening of Genesis viz. “The earth was without form
and void;
and darkness was upon the face of the deep,” the latter part of this statement being
the troubling part.

In other words according to the divine record
in the beginning (that is the beginning of the work of
preparing the earth for the arrival of mankind
); darkness was upon the face of the deep, no light
shone upon the surface of the earth
, the world at that time was in complete darkness and
covered in waters. Now naturally when the earth (the physical globe) was first being formed light
must have shone upon its surface, but that was something which must have transpired long before
the events being described in the Genesis account. The fact that it is stated that “
darkness was upon
the deep
,” can only imply one of two things, either the sun had not yet been created yet (another one
of the ridiculous beliefs held by many extremist
) or a much more reasonable view, the sun was there,
but
something was inhibiting its light from shining upon the face of the earth.

Here is where I believe we must begin if we are to properly present our case; we must attempt to
explain how conditions might have led up to this condition of things just prior to the Lord’s work in
preparing the earth for the arrival of man. And so let us look to see if we might fine amongst the many
theories derived of men as to how the earth was formed the one which most likely leads up to the
condition of the earth as described in the opening remarks of Genesis, “
The earth was without form
and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep…


From the Solar Nebular dust the Earth Emerges



















The Lord possessed me at the beginning of His way, Before His works of old…While as yet
He had not made the earth or the fields, or
the primal dust of the world.” Prov 8:22, 26

The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the
formation and evolution of the Solar System. It suggests that the Solar System formed from nebulous
material… According to the nebular hypothesis, stars form in massive and dense clouds of molecular
hydrogen—giant molecular clouds (GMC). These clouds are gravitationally unstable, and matter
coalesces within them to smaller denser clumps, which then rotate, collapse, and form stars. Star
formation is a complex process, which always produces a gaseous protoplanetary disk, proplyd, around
the young star. This may give birth to planets in certain circumstances, which are not well known. Thus
the formation of planetary systems is thought to be a natural result of star formation…The
protoplanetary disk is an accretion disk that feeds the central star. Initially very hot, the disk later cools
in what is known as the T tauri star stage; here, formation of small dust grains made of rocks and ice
is possible. The grains eventually may coagulate into kilometer-sized
planetesimals. If the disk is
massive enough, the runaway accretions begin, resulting in the rapid—100,000 to 300,000 years—
formation of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos. Near the star, the planetary embryos go through
a stage of violent mergers, producing a few terrestrial planets.” (
Nebular hypothesis)

“There are two main theories as to how the earth may have been formed both involve accretion or the
sticking together of molecules and particles: one of these is
Homogeneous accretion the other
Heterogeneous accretion.















Homogenous accretion: Similar elements stick together, creating a solid mass. The heat generated in
this process melts the particles. The heavier elements sink to the center because of gravity, creating
the Earth's sold core. Outgassing from this solid body creates the atmosphere.














Heterogeneous accretion: First, particles of metal stick together, creating the Earth's core. Lighter
elements stick to this core as it continues to cool. The gravity of this mass attracts most of the atoms
that make up the atmosphere.

Both of those theories use the same basic idea -- about 4.6 billion years ago, the Earth formed as
particles collected within a giant disc of gas orbiting a star. Once the sun ignited, it blew all of the extra
particles away, leaving the solar system as we know it.
The exact process probably included both
homogenous and heterogeneous accretion
.

Accordingly as these collisions continue and mass increased so too gravity eventually attracting much
larger items (i.e. asteroids, meteoroids and comets), these collisions in turn form
planetesimals
some of which eventually collide with each other to form
protoplanets. Heating continues to occur
causing outgassing, which in turn creates an atmosphere. Now exactly what this early atmosphere
consisted of at the time is not certain
.

At first, the Earth was very hot and volcanic. A solid crust formed as the planet cooled, and impacts
from asteroids and other debris caused lots of craters. As the planet continued to cool, water filled the
basins that had formed in the surface, creating oceans. Through earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and
other factors, the Earth's surface eventually reached the shape that we know today.” (“
Where did the
Earth come from?” By Tracy V. Wilson)





















“The first era in which the Earth existed is what is known as the
Hadean Eon. This name comes from
the Greek word “
Hades” (underworld), which refers to the condition of the planet at the time. This
consisted of the Earth’s surface being under a continuous bombardment by meteorites and intense
volcanism, which is believed to have been severe due to the large heat flow and geothermal gradient
dated to this era.

Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere, and evidence exists that
liquid water existed at this time, despite the conditions on the surface. Condensing water vapor,
augmented by ice delivered by comets, accumulated in the atmosphere and cooled the molten exterior
of the planet to form a solid crust and produced the oceans.”  (
Solar System History: How Was the
Earth Formed? By Matt Williams)

The previous thoughts are generally accepted; however it is highly unlikely that liquid water could
accumulate
upon the surface of the planet at this early stage barring the tremendous heat being
generated by the planet. However its accumulation in the atmosphere is not under dispute.

Note the following comments taken from another prospective.

The Earth formed under so much heat and pressure that it formed as a molten planet. For
nearly the first billion years of formation (
4.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) — called the Hadean Period (or
hellish period
) — Earth was bombarded continuously by the remnants of the dust and debris — like
asteroids, meteors and comets — until it formed into a solid sphere, pulled into orbit around the sun
and began to cool down. As Earth began to take solid form, it had no free oxygen in its atmosphere.
It was so hot that the water droplets in its atmosphere could not settle to form surface water
or ice
. Its first atmosphere was also so poisonous, comprised of helium and hydrogen that nothing
would have been able to survive.

Earth's early atmosphere most likely resembled that of Jupiter's atmosphere, which contains hydrogen,
helium, methane and ammonia, and is poisonous to humans.”  (“
Earths Beginnings: The Origins of
Life” By Eric McLamb)

“The Earth did not always have the same atmosphere as the one we depend upon today. In the earliest
atmosphere, the molecules of H2 and He2 dominated. These the lightest of molecules did not stay
long. They are light in molecular weight, and therefore require a large gravitational attraction to keep
them. The Earth is about 1/3 too light in terms of mass. Additionally,
the Earth was a homogeneous
mixture of molten rock and chemicals that had not yet stratified into the layers we know
today. Without an iron core, there is no magnetic field in the early Earth, required to
magnetically hold some of these lightest elements
(nor to deflect solar winds). Constant volcanism
and the decay of radioactive elements everywhere kept the planet very hot. With a thin or perhaps no
basalt crust, the molten planet made water accumulation impossible."

As the melting point of rock ranges between 2000 degrees Fahrenheit to twice that much, it
must have been in that range of temperature on the surface of the earth with increasing heat toward
the center until the maximum was reached.
Water not under pressure cannot be heated beyond
212 degrees, but if confined the temperature may increase until the water turns to vapor
exerting tremendous pressure in all directions.
As steam it will expand if possible 1645 times
or roughly one cubic inch
(of liquid water) becomes one cubic foot (of water vapor). Consequently
if there had been any water within the molten mass, it would have expanded and being lighter than the
molten rock would have risen to the surface and escaped into the atmosphere.”
























In considering the tremendous heat produced by the molten earth some conception of what that heat
must have been like is given to us by the heat radiated by the detonation of a thermo-nuclear
explosion. A hydrogen bombs explosive center registers approximately 100 million degrees Celsius. We
can see that all moisture would be converted to vapor as fast as atomic action produced it. This would
also be true of other substances.

“The Hydrogen Bomb is a fusion weapon. The bomb gets its power from fusing atoms in hydrogen. In
the reaction that causes the explosion for a Hydrogen Bomb, two atoms of Deuterium or Tritium hit
each other to create a helium atom and neutrons. "The resulting energy is proportional to the
difference in mass between the original atoms and the products of the collision." (MSN Encarta) In
order for the explosion to work, an extreme amount of heat is necessary. A nuclear fission is
necessary in order to generate that much heat (which would need to be as hot as the sun).
The exact
temperature would be about
100,000,000 K (Kelvins) or 99,999,726 C (Celsius) or
179,999,540 F (Fahrenheit). In order to achieve this, a nuclear fission bomb is placed at the center
of the device. The fission reaction creates the immense temperatures needed for the fusion reaction to
take place and the real explosion occurs.” (
Hydrogen Bomb)
























A major impact of just one asteroid of only a few kilometers in diameter would release the energy of
several million thermo-nuclear bombs, now multiply that by a constant bombardment of hundreds of
such asteroids over this period, some possibly much larger than just a few kilometers and try to
imagine the amount of heat being generated at that time. A 10-kilometer object would produce an
explosion of 6 × 107 megatons of TNT (equivalent to an earthquake of magnitude 12.4 on the Richter
scale).

The point is that practically every element or combination of elements can be reduced to
vapor
(or gas) by the application of sufficient heat, and then caused to expand, many of these
to an even greater degree than that of water
. Therefore we see that the requirement of law is that
those elements which eventually made up the crust of the earth, would have been converted to gas,
and would later have condensed to solid matter in earth’s atmosphere.

Excerpts taken from “
Rings and Canopies

We will continue with our next post.

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